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Thirst, muscle cramps, weakness, decreased attention, decreased performance, nausea, fatigue, headache, lightheadedness and dark color urine.
You should drink regularly so that your body is accustomed to being hydrated. Before activity you should drink about 20oz or 2 ½ cups of water or sports drink. During activity you should drink water or sports drink at least 3-4 times per hour or every 10-15 minutes. After activity you should drink 20oz or 2 ½ cups of water or sports drink per every pound lost.
As little as 2% loss of body fluid can have detrimental effects on the body such as faster heartbeat, impaired decision-making ability and increased body temperature. Weight loss during activity is water loss, NOT fat loss.
If your urine looks pale like lemonade, it’s a good sign of hydration. If it’s dark like apple juice, it’s a sign of dehydration.
Water, sports drinks, juice, milk, and popsicles are all acceptable sources. One may work better or worse for one athlete than another. Find what works for you and stay hydrated. By the time you feel thirsty, your body is already dehydrated.
Again this may be a preference per each individual athlete. Typically for workouts that last less than 90 minutes, water is the better choice. For workouts lasting more than 90 minutes, a sports drink may be helpful to replace lost sodium and other nutrients.
Dehydration occurs when the body loses too much fluid. Dehydration impairs athletic performance whenever body fluid level falls below 98% of normal. The primary cause of dehydration is sweat loss, an essential body process which facilitates the release of body heat into the environment. When athletes don’t replace what they lose in sweat, the physiological function of the body’s heat management system is compromised, placing both the athletes’ performance and physical well-being at risk.
This is a serious form of heat illness, but not as severe as heat stroke.
The most severe heat-related illness, heat stroke can permanently impair or kill an untreated athlete. Symptoms are similar to heat exhaustion, plus hyperthermia (high body temperature) whereby the core body temperature can be higher than 105.8 degrees. This can lead to conditions such as convulsions, heart attacks, coma, stroke, liver and kidney damage, or blood clots in the lung. If an athlete is not immediately immersed in ice water, he/she can die or suffer permanent physical damage.
* Medical Emergency
* REMEMBER: Athletes can still be experiencing heat stroke even if most symptoms are absent. Seek medical attention immediately at the first sign of serious or unusual symptoms.
Source: Michigan High School Athletic Association